Ways and methods of translating

Ways and methods of translating

1. Literal translation
2. Transcoding
3. Verbal translating
4. Word for word translating
5. The interlinear method of translating
6. Literary proper and literary artistic translation
7. Machine and computer based translation

A positive aspect of literal translation is revealed in rendering separate words, whose surface form and structure as well as their lexical meaning in the SL and TL fully coincide.

In their respect literal translation provides an equivalent rendering of the lexical meaning of the source language units.

Negative aspects of literary translation consists in rendering done according to formal or graphic / phonetic similarity of the English and Ukrainian words and phrases without considering their differences in meaning.

By etymologic literalism we understand imaginary correspondences, which are called translator’s false friends. Cases of semantic literalism are represented by the most general familiar meaning of the word or phrase instead of its concrete meaning.

There is a method of translating in the process of which the sounding and orthographical form of the word is conveyed by means of TL letters.

Transcoding is subdivided into transcription and transliteration.

Transcription is when the sounding is conveyed by TL letters.

Transliteration is when the graphic form is conveyed by target language letters
Mixed transcoding is used for rendering terminology. Adapted transcoding is when the form of the TL word is partly adapted to phonetic or grammatical structure of the TL (e.g. zoology).

Verbal translating conveys only the denotated meaning of the SL units and retains neither their orthographic nor sounding form.

It can be performed adequately on the word level, not phraseological units or idioms.

Word for word translating presents a consecutive verbal translation at the level of word groups and sentences. This method of rendering sense is characteristic to reproducing the constructions of the original without any changes and especially without essential word order change.

Interlinear method of translating is a strictly faithful rendering of a source message sense at the level of some text, which provides a completely faithful conveying only on the content.

Literary translating is divided into literary proper and literary artistic. Literary proper translating is the translation of different types of texts of informative character presenting the unity of form and content – adequate proper.
Literary artistic translating aims at producing emotional influence.

7. Professor Weaver suggested using computer to model the process of translation. The encoding/decoding approach, which is now called direction method) is employed. The direction method is based on establishing a direct relationship between the source and the target dictionary entries. In order to improve the quality of direct translating the following methods are applied:

1) Syntactic filter – they take the form of logical frames in which the slots are filled with the syntactic patterns, specify the function, the ambiguous syntactic term in the representation of the source text.
2) Statistical ranking of translational equivalents, which are applied to select the most probable ones for the subject matter discussed in a particular document under translation.
3) Transfer-based method – according to it grammars of SL and TL are matched in the process of translation by a set of rules called transfer.

There are three basic steps which are subdivided into five stages:

1) analysis
2) transference
3) synthesis
1. morphological analysis of ST (word analysis)
2. syntactic analysis – syntactic classes are analyzed
3. transfer – intermediate presentation of how the text is formed
4. syntactic syntaxis
5. morphological syntaxis

Professor Weaver introduced the notion of pivot language, which is based on machine translation transfer procedures applied at a syntactical level.

A pivot language is a formal description of morphological, syntactic and semantic character of one to one relationship.

Each language unit is related to a specific invariable atom in the pivot language structure and vice versa. Ideally the pivot based language translating will comprise the following steps:

1) morphological, syntactic and semantic analysis of the source text using information of the source language dictionaries and paradigms.
2) formation of the pivot language representation of the source text by the pivot language module into the target text using relevant semantic, syntactic, lexical and morphological data from the TL dictionary and paradigm.
The main component of the artificial translating model is its so-called knowledge-base.

According to the artificial intelligence-based translation model the results of linguistic analysis at all language levels are verified against extra-linguistic information, contained in the knowledge-base.

Another important component of artificial intelligence0based translation is decision-making module, comprising a structural hierarchy of logical productions with probability estimations.