Urgent tasks of modern Text Linguistics
The author of one of the first Russian textbooks devoted to Text Linguisticsingles out several directions of modern linguistic text analysis. Actually, those are not directions, but particular tasks the scholars had to deal with since the science of TL appeared and which need further investigation in present days.
1. Study of a text as a system of a higher rank, the main characteristics of which areand . The solution of this problem presupposes recognition of the idea that a text is a certain complex speech unity, a structural-semantic formation, different from a simple sequence of sentences. This is a unity consolidated by communicative , semantic completeness, logical, grammatical, and semantic links. The study of interrelations between surface and deep structures of a text is admitted to be the most promising trend of scientific research in this field.
2. Formation of typology of texts according to communicative parameters. ,and their correlative linguistic characteristics. The typological study of a text entails great difficulties connected with endless variations of the very object under analysis. Nevertheless, the study of communicative, structural, and semantic peculiarities of a text allows, us to determine certain parameters of classification, separating one group of texts from another.
3. Study of units that form a text. The process of characterising units of a text division makes sense only in case when these units differ not only: in volume, but also in special qualities not reduced to a. mere total of elements that make them up. Such unit in TL is the complex syntactic unity or the supra-phrasal unity. With the introduction of the unit of a higher rank than a sentence the limits of syntactic, theory widen.
4. Introduction of peculiar categories of a text. The determination, of, the circle of special textual notions and peculiarforms the subject of the newest TL. , for example,, considers prospection and retrospection to be the categories of a text. Still, there is no unity of opinion among the scholars concerning either the essence of or their classification. Another problem also remains unsolved: what are the means of expression of a certain category.
5. Determination of qualitative peculiarities of functioning of language units of different levels under the influence of a text as a result of their integration by a text. The ability to influence language units that make up a text is recognized as one of the peculiarities of a text as a structural-semantic unity. Under the influence of the text some new, additional meanings become realized in the elements that constitute the text. These (potential) meanings were characteristic of a given,element as a unit of language system and became active under the influence of a text, that is, they have transferred from the hidden, latent state to the open state. These new meanings may have appeared for the first time as a result of interaction of the given unit with the context.
6. Study ofand relations. Examination of structural, semantic and other means of connection between the components of a text contributes to elaboration the syntax of complex speech structures. The realization of connections between complex integral sentences is often hidden from direct observation, and a deep penetration into the body of the text is necessary for their revelation.