Types of translation (communicative and psycho-linguistic classification)
1) Communicative classification of translation
2) Genre classification of translation
3) Psycho-linguistic classification of translation
1) Communicative classification of translation is based on the predominant communicative function of the source text or the form of speech involved in the translation process. Translation can be literary and informative. Literary translation is the translation of literary texts. The main function of literary translation is to produce an emotional or aesthetic impression upon the reader.
The informative translation deals with rendering into target language the non-literary texts.
The main purpose of the informative translation is to convey a certain amount of ideas.
2) Literary works fall into genres. The technical translation the main goal is to identify the situation described in the original.
In official documents every word must be carefully chosen. Publicistic texts include the translations of newspapers, magazines, ect.
To other genres belong the translations of film scripts, where the main problem is to fit pronunciation and the choice of words. The translations of commercials are those, the main goal of which is to attract the attention of the audience.
3) Theof translation falls into written and oral translation, consecutive and simultaneous translation, compression and text development.
In written translation the original text is in written form as well as in target language. Written translation is continuous, oral translation is commentary (one time action). There are two main types of oral translation.
In consecutive translation the translating starts after the original speech of some part of it has been completed.
In simultaneous interpretation the interpreter is supposed to be able to give his translation while the speaker is uttering his message.
The difference between consecutive and simultaneous interpretation – in simultaneous interpretation the interpreter is much more limited in time. The length of the text translated is much shorter than in consecutive translation.
Unlike consecutive interpretation, were the interpreter may correct mistakes and slips of the tongue, simultaneous has no time for corrections and redoing.
Text compression is aimed at saving interpretation time and removing source text redundancy, which allows the interpreter to keep in pace with the source text, not sacrificing the context.
It is more often used in simultaneous interpretation.
Basic comprehension devices in the Ua-En translation are:
1) Transformation of the nominative structures into the verbal ones
2) Conversion of prepositional constructions into noun clusters
3) Omission of transformation of words and word combinations typical to Ukrainian style and considered redundant according to English speech standards.
Compression is more often used in translations from Ukrainian into English because the English way of expression is more concise.
And often English text contains no redundant words, which is explained by the analytical structure of the language.
Text development is more often used in consecutive translation. It is reflected in the note-taking procedure. Text development in the course of interpretation is the restoration of the full composition of the source sentence, starting from its syntactic and semantic core, accompanied by compliance with syntactic and semantic standards of the target language.
The note-taking procedure includes main ideas (skeleton outline, subject-predicate-object), links and separations, viewpoints of the speaker, tenses and modalities, proper and geographical names, dates and numbers.
Recommendations to take notes:
1. Diagonal notes
2. Left hand margins for links and viewpoints
3. Short horizontal lines to separate sentences
4. Question marks, exclamation marks, ect.