Simultaneous translation theory
Simultaneous translation first appeared in Nurnberg during the lawsuit over military criminals in 1946. The same year the organization of UN used thefor the first time. The development of translation and theoretical requirements for translators in Ukraine starts in the 70s in 19 century.
In 1964 the appearance of Ukrainian folk theater stipulated the need of translating the repertoire. The important place in the development to Ukrainian literal and scientific translation belongs to Ivan Franko, who translated literary works of different epochs and authors.
After the WWII such important translators as Maksym Ruls’kiy and Kochur played an important role in translation as national culture. Among other Ukrainian translators we can name Komisarov, Torop, Cherebnichenko, professor Zorivchak, professor Koptilov, Korunets’.
In Russian translation theory Y.I Retsker in 1950 published the articles where he states that the choice of translation devices is not free but logical and is determined by translation correspondences of two languages.
The investigation of translation correspondences is depicted in the book “Language and translation” by Barchudarov and the “Introduction to the ” by Fedorov.
Vinai and Darbelnet carry out a comparative analysis of French and English in order to find the units that can be interchanged in translation. Another successful translation work in linguisticby Catford, who investigates the notion of equivalents.
Among other famous translation names are Mounin, Naida, Mona Baker (Routlege Encyclopedia, In other words). Peter Newmark (A textbook of translation).
Interest in the history of translation has grown in recent years. Conferences have focused in the subject numerous books have appeared, different projects have been launched. The history of translation can focus on practice or theory or both. The history of the practice of translation deals with such questions. What has been translated, by whom, under what circumstances, in what social or political context.
History ofdeals with the following questions:
1) What translators have had to say about their art, craft, science.
2) How translations have been evaluated at different periods
3) What kinds of recommendations translators have made
4) How translation has been taught
5) How this translation is related to other translation of the same period
Both theory and practice can be investigated at once:
1) How can the reliability or relevance of the text or translation be determined
2) What is the relation between practice and reflection on translation.
One of the major concerns in writing the history of translation is how to structure the events of the past.
Among the more conventional dividing lines are those offered by categories of space and time of the history of translation in a given geographical area (i.e. Europe), the history of translation during a given period (i.e. Middle ages).
With the emergence of translation works on began to include historical information on the subject. The early examples include Admond Carry’s “La trauction dans le mond modern” and Theodor Savory’s “The art of translation which presents facts about the translators and translations of the past along with translation principles”. Translation history has tended to place emphasis on literary translation.
Another way of looking at the history of literary translation is to study the successful translation of great authors such as Homer and Shakespeare: the Bible is another of these significant words. Jonathan Wilcox’s college documents translation development including the translation of important religious works. Late Latin works, the Bible, thus being part of a process of education. Translation blossomed in late Anglo-Saxon England and reaches its height in the words of Aelfric. From Reformation and Renaissance till 18th century the movements or paradigms are carried forward by translation, on the one hand Biblical translation, on the other translation of classical Greek and Roman canons of literary and historical writings.
Along with an increasing emphasis on more recent European literature Martin Luther is the author of one of the most important Bible translations in European history. In England Willam Tindale is an important translation of the Bible into English during the Reformation and Renaissance. In the 15th century women start engaging themselves in translations. Henry the 8th’s Mother, Lady Margaret, Baufort, Dame Eleonoir Hul. In the 17th century there is a number of important women translators most of whom were educated gentlewomen: Martha, Lady Givard. Several of the key statements of the 19th century were made by German scholars, who were active in the period generally characterized as Romantic. Herder, Goethe, Humbolts, the Schlegel, brothers Schleyermacher all wrote important documents about translation.
Ezra Pound is one of the most important figures in the history of translation in English and a key figure of the development of translation in the 20th century. His translations contribute a significant body of work, which has been extraordinarily influenced.
It has even been suggested that one may speak of poetry translation of the modern period as either pre- or post-Poundian.
Other types of translation have not received as much translation as literary religious and technical translations. In highlighting the changing functions and states of translations contemporary studies have recognized the importance of institutional factors: either the impact of institutions of translations or the history of translation institutions themselves.
The methods of writing the history of translation reflect two opposing tendencies:
1) One consisting in splitting-up the field into smaller plots as specialization increases and the other moving toward rejoining of the pieces in order to have a global history: coverage of large geo- cultural units (mainly Europe but also the Middle East) with emphasis on phenomena across the region broken down into traditional periods of cultural history (antiquity, Middle ages, Renaissance, Modern period).
2) Coverage from regional and national perspectives in German speaking areas treated as a paradigmatic case.
3) Case studies of the worldwide distribution and translation of significant texts.