Розмовна тема: the climate of Ukraine

Розмовна тема: the climate of Ukraine

То start with, I would like to emphasize that climate of any place results from the interaction of a number of factors, of which the most important are latitude, distance from the sea, relief and the direction of the prevailing winds. Climate has profound effects on vegetation and animal life, including humans. As for Ukrainian climate, it is also influenced by those things I have already mentioned. As a result, the climate of Ukraine is determined by its geographical location. Ukraine’s territory lies in the temperate (помірний) belt (пояс). Most of Ukraine has four distinct seasons: winter, spring, summer and autumn. Ukraine has a moderate (помірний), continental climate, with cold winters and warm summers. The Crimean coast, however, has a Mediterranean climate, with mild, wet winters and hot. dry summers.

The climate varies from north to south; from the northwest to the southeast as the warm damp (вологий) air masses moving from the north-western Atlantic weaken and become drier. A characteristic feature is an increase in its continental nature from west to east. In eastern Ukraine, air masses from the steppes of Central Asia often make summers warmer and winters colder. Another feature of the Ukrainian climate is the considerable (значний) fluctuation (коливання, мінливість) in weather conditions from year to year. Alongside with very wet years there can be droughts [draut] (посухи) whose effect increases to the south and east.

The average yearly temperature in Ukraine varies between + 5, + 7°C in the north and +1 К + 13°C in the south. The coldest month is January with a record low of – 42°C. The warmest month is July with a record high of + 40°C. Precipitation (випадення осадів) in Ukraine averages500 mm per year, with considerable regional variation; levels are highest in the Carpathians and lowest on the Black Sea coast. For most of the country, rainfall tends to be most frequent in the summer months.

On the southern coast of the Crimea the climate is subtropical Mediterranean because of the Crimean Mountains. They block the movement of cold arctic air to the coast. These climatic features have contributed (робити внесок) to the creation of one of the best resort areas in Ukraine. Fruit orchards and vineyards (виноградник) are numerous. In addition to such fruits as cherries, peaches, figs, apricots, apples, and pears, agricultural products of Crimea include tobacco, wheat (пшениця) and barley (ячмінь). To sum up,Ukraine’s climate is generally favorable for agriculture and tourism, especially in Crimea.

As for The British Isles, their location within latitudes 50° to 61° N is a basic factor in determining the main characteristics of the climate in the UK.Britain has a generally mild and temperate climate, which is dominated by marine influences and is rainy. The Atlantic Ocean greatly modifies the climate of the British Isles, for their small area and the indented nature of the coastline allow maritime influences to penetrate well inland. Therefore,Britain’s climate is one of mild winters and cool summers, with rain throughout the year. The prevailing winds in Britain are extremely moist, as a result, clouds form and precipitation follows. Average annual rainfall is about1,100 mm. Relief also is important, so the mountainous areas of the west and north have far more rainfall than the lowlands of the south and east. Because of the North Atlantic Drift and the maritime air masses, the range in temperature throughout the year is never very great. The annual mean temperature is about 10° С.

July and August are the warmest months of the year; January and February – the coldest. During a normal summer, the temperature may rise above 30° С in the south. Minimum temperature of -10° С may occur on a clear winter’s night in inland area. Lower temperatures are rare. In direct contrast with climate, the weather of the British Isles is variable. North and north-west winds often bring heavy snowfalls to north Britain during November but they are short-lived. June is the brightest month of the year. Rainfall increases during July and August because air is capable of holding more moisture. Late summer is noted for very warm weather and this may continue into September.