Розмовна тема: Cloning
It wasn’t that long ago when the world met Dolly, the first mammal ever cloned. Since then scientists have used genetic engineering to create, for example, cloned pigs with human genes or a chicken that sings like a bird. The idea that science can clone a human being has become a reality, and many people expect that scientists will be able to clone human beings in a few years’ time. As a result, the questions arise how far science will go and what ethical problems are surrounding genetic engineering today.
However, experiments onare not crazy. Scientists are working on techniques because they believe that they will offer important new opportunities. For example, they hope that they will be able to produce organs in pigs for transplants into humans that suffer from illnesses. The same technology will also allow scientists to make diseased organs work well again because they are going to improve the way the body works. So far, sheep, pigs, rats, cows, camels, horses and a monkey have all been cloned to try and produce new medicines, to create organs for transplant and produce animals that don’t suffer from diseases.
However, it is the possibility of human cloning that worries ethics experts. Nowadays human cloning is already illegal in many countries, but it is likely that someone will develop it. Perhaps they will do it secretly because infertile couples may want to use human cloning to have children. There are plenty of the ethical problems of cloning. For example, should parents have the right to clone a child who died from a fatal disease or an accident? People may also try and steal the genes of famous people to produce a particularly attractive or intelligent child. We may even try and clone a dream football team. For example, in twenty years’ time we might have a clone of Rivaldo playing alongside a clone of Pele. There are lots of possibilities and people need to think about them now before they happen.
Some scientists think there would be no progress if we worried about what might happen. According to scientists, great people have favourable genes but they also have something else. For example, science can clone a great sportsman or woman but there is no guarantee that the cloned child will be a champion. To be a champion you need to train, to work hard and have the determination to win and cloning won’t give you all that. Anyway, if human cloning happens, it will improve our lives. Scientists think they will have designed children by 2050. Scientists will be able to control the genes for height, weight and body shape. These children will beier and have fewer diseases. In addition, cloning will be used to increase the population of endangered animals such as the panda.
To my mind, cloning is the future because it is becoming a reality and no one can stop it. To conclude, I’d like to say that one of the joys of life is that human beings are so different and we should ponder over the question whether we really want to live in a world where everyone is ideal.
men than in the men with the least anger. The link between anger and heart disease was not explained by differences in blood pressure, smoking or other cardiac risk factors; hostility was heartbreaking in its own right.
As it turns out, hostility is not so good for the brain, either. In a report published this spring, Susan A. Everson and her colleagues at thereported that hostility increases a patient’s risk of stroke. The effect is significant. In a seven-year study of more than 2,000 men, the scientists found that men who showed high levels of anger on standard tests of anger expression were two times more likely to have strokes than were their calm peers. Other factors such as age, smoking, high blood pressure, excessive alcohol consumption, diabetes, obesity and high cholesterol levels did not account for the increased risk.
Men do not have to retire to protect their. They should, however, certainly eat right, exercise often and avoid smoking to keep their hearts healthy. They should have regular medical care and be sure their blood pressure and cholesterol levels are okay. But they should also seek a work environment that provides a healthy degree of autonomy and control without sacrificing social supports. At its best, work should be challenging without being stressful; it should also be balanced by a healthy amount of play.