The relation of Methodology to other sciences

The relation of Methodology to other sciences

Methodology of teaching English is closely related to such sciences as Pedagogics, Psychology, Physiology, Linguistics, and some others.

Pedagogics is the science concerned with general teaching and education. One branch of Pedagogics is called Didactics which studies general ways of teaching in schools. Methodology, as compared to Didactics, studies the specific ways of teaching a definite subject. Thus Methodology may be considered as a special Didactics. In the foreign language teaching, as well as in the teaching of other school subjects, general principles of Didactics are applied, and in their turn, influence and enrich Didactics. Eg., the so called principle of visualization was first introduced in teaching foreign languages, now it has become one of the fundamental principles of Didactics and is used in teaching all school subjects. Programmed instruction was first applied in teaching Mathematics. Now through Didactics it is used in teaching many subjects, including foreign languages.

It would be impossible to develop language habits and speech skills with­out information about the ways of forming them, the influence of formerly acquired habits on the formation of new ones which is supplied by Psychology. Eg., effective learning a foreign language depends to a great extent on the pupil’s memory. That is why a teacher must know how he can help his pupils to success­fully memorize and retain in memory the language material they learn. Here psy­chological investigations are significant. Psychologists proved that in learning a subject both voluntary and involuntary are of great importance. They also came to a conclusion that involuntary memory is retentive. Consequently, in teaching English teachers should create favourable conditions for involuntary memorizing.

Methodology of foreign language teaching has a definite relation to Physi­ology of the pupils’ higher nervous system. Pavlov’s theory of “conditioned re­flexes” is the example. According to Pavlov habits are conditioned reflexes, and a conditioned reflex is an action performed automatically in response to a defi­nite stimulus as a result of previous frequent repetitions of the same action. If we thoroughly study this theory we shall see that it explains and confirms the neces­sity for frequent repetition and revision of material the pupils study as one of the means of habits formation.

Methodology of foreign language teaching is closely related to Linguistics, since Linguistics deals with the problems that are of great importance to Meth­odology: language and speech, grammar and vocabulary, the relationship be­tween grammar and vocabulary, and many others. Methodology successfully uses, for example, the results of linguistic investigation in the selection and ar­rangement of language material for teaching.