The place of text linguistics among other scientific disciplines
Linguistic literature abounds in different points of view on the nature of a text as well as different approaches to its description.
The author of оne of the existing points of view on the place of linguistic text analysis among other scientific disciplines, a Dutch (Holland) scholarprefers the term “ ” (textwissenschaft), though he uses the term “TL” as well. In T. van Dijk’s opinion, “the ” is an interdisciplinary science that integrates independent scientific schools trends) such as theology, history, law etc., that also deal with text. Не suggests the following scheme of such interdisciplinary science.
Naturally, in all these scientific disciplines text is analyzed differently (under different angles and with different angles and with different aims):
– History deals with social, political and cultural circumstances under which the texts and their variants appeared.
– Theology is concerned with interpretation of mainly religious texts.
– Law studies judicial texts and their application for the solution of conflict situations.
– Social Science investigates the relations between certain textual structures and their influence on knowledge, views, positions and actions of individuals, groups of people or societies.
– Cognitive psychology also studies the processes that underlie production and perception of certain speech forms.
– Literary Studies are mainly preoccupied with literary texts.
– Linguistics comprises 3 directions of text analysis: syntax, semantics and pragmatics (what is felt here is the semiotic approach of T. van Dijk to the ).
In his later works T. van Dijk prefers to speak not about text analysis but about analysis of ‘discourse’ as a notion that includes *text* as well. “The study of discourse is not limited to an explicit description of structures proper. The results of discourse investigations in the field of such disciplines as Theory of Speech Communication, Cognitive Psychology, Social Psychology, Microsociology and Ethnography showed that “discourse” is not just an isolated textual or dialogue structure. Discourse is a complex communicative phenomenon that includes social constant which represents both the participants of communication (and their characteristics) and theand perception. And another quote “Breaking intuitive or linguistic approaches to its definition, discourse does not confine itself to the limits of a concrete language utterance, i.e. the limits of a text or of a dialogue”.
Henrich Plett suggests a somewhat different view on the place of TL “Science about texts”. His “Science about texts” includes three large areas theory of a text, applied science about texts and text analysis. In this turn, the theory of a text includes: theoretical linguistics, theory of literature, theory of styles; applied science – applied science, methodology and stylistics; text analysis – TL literature interpretation, style analysis. In TL, the following areas of analysis are singled out: functional syntax, text connectedness, text micro-, medio- and macro-structure, reference, regional.
Modern TL, in which speech production is viewed under different angles, has an explicit. According to a German scholar Klaus Brinker, TL today occupies the central place in linguistics both in theoretical and in practical plane.
To reiterate, TL is a relatively new branch of linguistic science. Its object is a coherent text, on the material of which the essence and the organization of the conditions of human verbal communication is elucidated. In the process of translation, both communicative orientation (maxim) and pragmatic functions of ST and TT should be taken into account. Manner of presentation, text type and otherof a text help to work out the translator’s strategy and to reach the necessary result in the TT.