Part 2: Lexico-Semantic and Structural Analysis of Language Units of the Excerpt
This can be observed practically in most addresses of the woman, as in the following dialogues:
“Now I got you!” she said. “Now you can’t get away!”
“Ось ви і попалися мені! ” вигукнула вона. “Тепер вам не втекти!”
“Why, hello,” said her host. “Well. How are you? ”
“А, вітаю,” – озвався господар. “Ну. як ся маємо/як справи?”
Apart from the use of the expressive modal particles (ось, a, ну) the highly emotional speech of the woman character abounds in wrong forms of some words. Cf.:
“Oh, I’m finely” she said. “Just simply finely. Listen. I want you to do me the most terrible favor. Will you? Will you please? Pretty please?”
“О, в мене все красненько” відповіла вона. “Просто-таки красненько. Послухайте, я хочу, щоб ви мені зробили страшенну послугу. Зробите? Будь ласка, зробите? Дуже вас прошу!”
The wrong use of finely instead of the correct form fine is not easy to translate into Ukrainian, where there is no corresponding corrupted form of this adverb. Hence, the stylistically possible wrong employment of the adverb красненько with the aim of compensating the English corruption in Ukrainian translation.
Certainly of some interest, but without any difficulty for translators, may be the oxymoron the most terrible favor which should be in Ukrainian simply страшенна послуга or страшенно велика послуга. Of interest is also the fifth sentence (“What is it?”), which may have some versions, though not the word-for-word version “Що це?” or “Що це таке?” as the host meant some concrete idea of the noun “the favor”. Correspondingly, the interrogative sentence may have one of the following four faithful variants: 1. “А яку (послугу)?”; 2. “А саме?”; 3. “Що за послугу?”; 4. “Тобто?”.
In the sixth block of sentences, certainly of interest from the point of view of translation, may be some word-groups and sentences, even the simple and constantly used concluding words “he said/she said” after the direct speech. These several times repeated English sentences, naturally, can not (for stylistic reasons) be translated word-for-word as “він сказав/вона сказала”. Acceptable may be, depending on the context, the following versions: поцікавився він/вона, запитав він/вона, звернулася вона/він, вставила вона/він and sometimes an omission of this tag sentence altogether.
Certainly of some difficulty in the sixth sentence may be the verb meet in the utterance / want to meet Walter Williams, where it has the contextual meaning of познайомитися; hence, the Ukrainian version must be Я хочу познайомитися з Волтером Вільямсом and not Я хочу зустрітися з Волтером Вільямсом.
No less interesting, though far from easy to render, are some other sense units in sentence 6 in the woman’s dialogue. Among them is the sentence “Honestly I’m just simply crazy about that man” in which there are some stumbling blocks worth being analyzed. For example, “honestly” may have some faithful variants in Ukrainian: “чесно”, “слово честі”, “їй-богу”, “правду кажу”. Any of the first three versions may be used in this Ukrainian translation. As to the part of the sentence “I’m just simply crazy” (about that man), it may have two variants in this sentence: 1. “Я в нестямі від цієї людини” (and not – від цього чоловіка, which may have some other meaning) or 2. “Я просто божеволію від захоплення цим співаком.” No direct (word-for-word) translation can be suggested for the sentence “Oh, when he sings”, which may have two faithful variants: 1. “О, як він співає” and 2. “О, як він тільки співає” (with the use of the emphatic particle тільки).
Some difficulty may arise when translating the utterance “Well, I said to Burton, when I left, it’s a good thing for you Walter Williams is coloured” I said, “or you’d have lots or reasons to be jealous.” Its faithful version in Ukrainian can be achieved only through a deep inquiry into the content and style of the utterance. Probably the most difficult is to translate the repeated utterance “I said”, which is a kind of an inserted sentence often used in narration in Ukrainian too, but only in present form of a definite personal sentence (in reported speech). Its form is “кажу” (cf.: А я оце кажу, А я оце сиджу та й думаю, etc). Hence, the only correct/faithful Ukrainian translation of this block of sentences may be as follows: ” Ну/то ж я сказала Бертону, як ішла з дому: добре, кажу, що цей Волтер Вільямс кольоровий, а то в тебе було б багато підстав для ревнощів/ревнувати.”
Two more utterances of the block are not easy for the point of view of translation either: 1. “I’d really love to tell him” which can be translated as “Я б дуже хотіла сказати” or “Я б обов’язково сказала йому” and 2. “І heard him sing” which can not mean “Я чула, як він співав”, which is of no importance for the host or anybody, since to hear anybody sing is no great privilege whatsoever. Only her having attended some of the singer’s concerts could be qualified in certain periods of the U.S. history as a bold deed. Because of this the sentence should be translated as follows: “Я б йому сказала, що була на його концерті/відвідувала його концерт.” In this way the woman could show herself in the eyes of the guest as a bold, progressive and devoted to arts person.
The concluding utterance in block six of sentences presents some interest as well having practically two neutral, i.e., semantically equivalent for the context variants: “Будьте ж настільки ласкаві; будьте ж ангелом Божим… і представте мене йому/познайомте мене з ним.” The answer of the host (sentence 7) is pretty clear, but it requires a proper expression in Ukrainian where “Why, certainly” may be translated faithfully in some ways: 1. “Це можна, звичайно”, 2. “Будь ласка, це можна” or even 3. “А чому ж, можна”/ “Звичайно ж”, 4. “Обов’язково познайомлю”.
The third utterance of this block of sentences “The party’s for him”) may have at least two versions as well:
1. “Адже ця вечірка – в його честь”;
2. “Адже цей вечір влаштовано/влаштований виключно для нього”;
3. “Адже це його вечір”.
In the eighth block of sentences of interest may be utterance 3: “Well, I think you’re simply marvelous, giving this perfectly marvelous party for him and having him meet all those white people, and all.” In this utterance transformations are needed in some places, the first being that of the word-group “simply marvelous”, which can not be translated as “просто чудовий”, but only as a substantival word-group “ви просто чудо” or still more accurately “ви просто молодець/просто-таки молодець.” The participial construction/ word-group “giving this perfectly marvelous party for him” can also be translated in two ways: 1. влаштовуючи цей чудовий вечір для нього or 2. що влаштували цей/такий чудовий вечір/вечірку для нього.
Some difficulty may present the translation of the often used by the woman empty phrase “and all”, which corresponds not to our “i все”, but to “і взагалі” or “та й взагалі”.
Part 3: Lexico-Semantic and Structural Analysis of Language Units of the Excerpt
Part 4: Lexico-Semantic and Structural Analysis of Language Units of the Excerpt
Part 5: Lexico-Semantic and Structural Analysis of Language Units of the Excerpt