Objectively required and subjectively introduced/contextual transformations of language units
As has been shown, there may be tworesorted to in the process of translation:
1. objectively required/ conditioned by the, i.e., inevitable, and 2. subjectively introduced at the translator’s own will and therefore not always unavoidable.
Either of them requires structural/ outer alterations of the sourcein the target language.
Moreover, each type of these transformations may be realized both on the syntactic as well as on the lexical level units. Cf. His holidays had been spent at Robin Hill with boy friends, or with his parents. (Galsworthy) – канікули він проводив у Робін Гілі з товаришами чи з батьками. Here the passive voice syntaxeme had been spent must have been changed in Ukrainian into the active voice form. Objectively predetermined are also transformations of the objective with the infinitive or participle constructions/complexes, gerundial and nominative absolute participial constructions, national idioms, etc. In these cases a simple English sentence may turn into a complex sentence. Cf.:
“lt (music) seems to be right in them.” (D.Parker)
“Здається, ніби музика в них просто в крові”.
” When do you want me to do it?” (Maugham)
“Коли ви хочете, щоб я ие зробив?”
The outer form/structure of the language unit may be deliberately changed in the target language, when it requires a concretiza-tion. As a result, the structure of the sense unit is often extended or shortened in the target language without changing its proper meaning. For example, the personal pronoun it and the auxiliary verb do, when concretized in the Ukrainian translation may be substituted for a noun phrase and an objective word-group:
” Why did you do it?” the/sheriff said. “I didn’t do it,” Johnny said. (Saroyan)
“Ти навіщо підпалив будинок?” – запитав шериф. -“Я не підпалював його.” – відповів Джонні.
The predicative word-groups підпалив будинок and його не підпалював become necessary in Ukrainian in order to explicate properly the meaning of the verb do and the pronoun it, which can be achieved only in a descriptive way, i.e., through transformation.
Also semantically and stylistically predetermined are all translator’s transformations through addition, which are resorted to with the aim of achieving the necessary expressiveness. Additions become necessary in the target language either in order to express more clearly the content of the source language unit, or for the sake of achieving some stylistic effect. Cf.:
When a girl leaves her home at eighteen, she does one of two things – (Dreiser)
Коли дівчина залишає домівку у вісімнадцять років, з нею трапляється одне з двох…
“l’m so glad you’ve asked me, darling.” (Maugham)
“Я дуже радий, шо ти мене запитала про ие. люба.”
The additions made in the first and in the second Ukrainian sentences are both lexical and syntactic, since the first of them completes the sentence through the formation of the attributive word-group (вісімнадцять років), and the second complements the objective verb and forms an objective word-group, which completes the object clause and the sentence as a whole (що ти мене запитала про це).
A semantic or syntactic addition used with the aim of concretization may become necessary in the target language in order to maintain the peculiar way of expression or to complete the structure of the sense unit in the language of translation. For example:
There was just enough room for us two in the crate, and if the straw was not evenly strewn, it made lumps under our backs. (Caldwell)
У ящикові було місце лише для нас двох, і якщо бананова підстилка не була рівномірно розгорнута, вона збивалася в жмутки і муляла нам у боки.
The objective word-group муляла нам у боки is a semantically stable expression in Ukrainian and it can not exist without the verb муляти, which functions as its syntactic head. Similar additions for the sake of concretization become inevitable in the target language when dealing with local place names and specifically national notions of the source language. For example:
Він мешкає у Києві на Подолі, а працює там на Сирці. Не lives in the Podil district of Kyiv and works there in the Syrets’ residential area of the city.
There is no mention in the Home Office list of any such industrial desease. (Cronin)
В офіційній інструкції міністерства внутрішніх справ і згадки нема про таке професійне захворювання (шахтарів).
The Home Office (list) has been concretized by way of an explicatory translation, i.e., by adding the word (noun) міністерство which is contextually required in the Ukrainian translation.
Part 2: Objectively required and subjectively introduced/contextual transformations of language units
Part 3: Objectively required and subjectively introduced/contextual transformations of language units