The notion of a type of the text and a copy of the text

The notion of a type of the text and a copy of the text

The communicative-speech activity takes place under certain communicative conditions that possess a certain set. of situational characteristics. Some specific forms of organization of speech activity that recur in the same situations, in the course of time became stable and acquired the character of ritual. Similarly in the course of historical, development and realization of human communication the society (community) has developed certain norms of verbal expression of the transmitted contents.

In modern linguistics for the characteristics of the steady textual forms and concrete realization of the given form in speech the terms “a type of the text’ (Textsorte) and “a copy of the text” (Textexemplar) are used. A type of the text is understood as the form of the text, in which the communicative intention of the speaker is realized and which is arranged according to certain rules and norms. Thus, each concrete text (Textexemplar) along with grammatical, lexical, phonetic and other peculiarities of its structure also possesses some specific for this type of texts textual characteristics (Textsorte).

According to some scholars, the type of the text is a phenomenon intuitively familiar to the carriers of a certain language. They are capable of identifying different types of the text, as well as of finding out and applying in practice the rules, which underlie the typology of the texts. So, the task of a linguist in this case is only to explicit intuitive understanding by each individual of such a notion as the type of the text. H.Weinrich considers, that along with traditional literary criticism a new scientific discipline – “linguistics of types of the text” – (Textsorten Linguistik) which is capable of applying linguistic theory to the analysis of various forms of daily communication between people should deal with this problem.