Meaning and antonymic translation
1. Differentiation of meaning
2. Generalization of meaning
3. Semantic development of meaning
4. Antonymic translation
5. Basic translation devices
1. Differentiation of meaning is such a translation, which presupposes the word of a broader semantics being substituted for the word with narrower semantics.
2. Generalization of meaning is such a transformation, which presupposes the word of a narrower semantics being substituted with a word with broader semantics: e.g. the American society was the ideal vehicle (середовище) for industrialization.
3. Semantic development of meaning consists in using contextual correspondences instead of dictionary ones as a logical result of the development of their notion. E.g. additional evidence comes from comparative studies of…
Three types ofs:
1) Negation – when a word or word combination without negative seme or suffix in its semantic structure is substituted for a word with negative suffix or seme.
2) Affirmation – when a word with a negative seme is substituted with a word without negative suffix .
3) Annulment of the negative components available in the source text units.
Antonymic translation is rendering of English words and statements by norms of opposite antonymic words and statements.
Partitioning – is either replacing in translation of a source sentence by two or more target ones or converting a simple source sentence into a compound or complete target one.
Inner partitioning is when a simple sentence is changed into compound.Outer partitioning is when one sentence is substituted by more sentences.
Integration – implies combing two or more source sentences into one target sentence.Transposition is a peculiar variety of inner partitioning in translation that means a change in the order of the target sentence syntactic elements as compared with that of the source sentence dictated either by the peculiarities of the syntax or by the communication intent.
e.g. The flight will be boarded at the gate 17 in 15 minutes.
Replacement is any change of the target text at the morphological, lexical and syntactic levels of the language, when the elements of certain source paradigms are replaced by different elements of target paradigms.
e.g. He used to come to New York each spring (Він зазвичай приїжджав до Нью Йорку кожної весни).
Such basic types of replacement are observed in English-Ukrainian translation replacement of noun paradigm, verb tense and voice paradigm.
Replacement of parts of speech,. Addition is intended for a compensation of structural elements, implicitly present in the source text or paradigm forms missing in the TL.
e.g. peer-bonded goods, fuel tax protest
Omission is the reduction of the elements of the source text considered redundant from the viewpoint of the TL structural patterns and stylistics.
e.g. null and void
Some sense units of the source language retain their sense and structure in the TL unchanged. Some alter or completely change the original language form.
The kind of major and minor alteration in the structural form of language units with the aim of achieving faithfulness in translation are called translator’s transformation.
Not all sense units need to be transformed in the process of translation, a considerable number remains unchanged or little changed.
Among these are the following classes of language units:
1) Most genuine internationalisms. Some idiomatic expressions – marketing, gentleman.
2) Many loan internationalisms, which maintain in TL the same meaning but have a different phonetic structure. E.g. standard of living.
3) Almost all proper nouns.