K.Hauzenblas' classification of speech fragments

K.Hauzenblas’ classification of speech fragments

The fact that Karel Hauzenblas employs a limited quantity of factors relevant to a certain textual structure is the peculiarity of his classification. Moreover he applies parameters which haven’t been considered by scholars who make up various textual, typologies.
Simplicity/complexity of the text structure

1. A speech work contains only one text with only one sense. These are speech works of the most various kinds: business letters, applications, reports on. events and so on. But it is impossible to be absolutely sure that under certain conditions even such speech works may not acquire a different sense.

2. A speech work contains only one sense, which, nevertheless, hears double, (ambiguous) sense. This type can be found not only in poetry or belles-lettres prose, but in many other functional styles: jokes, utterances, where an estimation different from the one expressed nominally is read between the lines, in other words in irony, allegory and such like pieces.

3. A speech work consists of one text into which, however, an extract from another text is inserted (or even a whole speech work), which becomes in such a way a part of the text of the whole speech work but continues 16 stand out in it. Such are quotations of other speech works if they are marked as foreign elements. Direct speech is also equated to quotations. The inserted part of the text may even prevail over the principal part: the principal(basic) speech work may make up only the formal framing.

4. A narrative text and especially a text of belles-lettres style with direct speech, indirect speech, and free indirect speech acquires, however, a different character, if the signs that signal the belonging of separate parts of the text to different speakers (characters) become obscure or ambiguous. Such a speech work is close to a homogeneous speech work.

5. A dialogue speech work is also considered to consist of a single text, though, of course, a heterogeneous one and divided into interchanging speech works of two or more active participants of the dialogue. The dialogue unfolds as a single text (under normal conditions it is virtually impossible to exclude one of the participants’ utterances because the sum of the utterances of a single participant will not form a continuous sequence and thus will not have a complete meaning).

6. There are, however, other speech works with complicated structure of text. For example, a newspaper article may be read in two ways: either completely, or – more cursory and quickly – only the banner headlines, titles, subtitles or passages printed in bold. This is the case of the single text which, however, assumes (or even signals) condensation into a shorter (ext. Compare: texts on posters where the complete text is intended for reading from a short distance, and the more condensed text – for reading from afar. The condensed text must attract the addressee’s attention, and the complete text must reveal to him the content of the advertisement. Similarly, the material of some textbooks is presented.

7. A speech work consisting of two (or more) texts with the following correlation: basic text/auxiliary text; obvious text / latent text. Technical articles, in which, the auxiliary text with annotations arranged as footnotes at the bottom of the page or at the end of the article joins the basic text printed in the upper part of the page may serve as examples of such speech works.

8. Speech works in which, two (or more) texts are interchained in a way:

a) written texts “working” in two directions, for example, anagram in posters leaving independent text, or ciphered texts, for example, in secret military messages, as well as intimate diary notes, crosswords and so on;
b) in oral manifestation cases of simultaneous realization of multifunctional basic text are possible, as in, for example, multilayer singing, recitation of poetry to musical accompaniment an so on.