Illocutionary classes singled out by J. Searle

Illocutionary classes singled out by J. Searle

J.Searle’s illocutionary classes serve as another basis for numerous foreign classifications of text functions.

J. Searle singles out:

1) representatives: their function is to represent a certain (true or false, right or wrong) state of affairs (diagnosis, statement, description, prediction, report);
2) directives – speech acts, motivating (urging) the recipient to some action (order, request, advice, direction, instruction);
3) commissives – speech acts in which the speaker promises to undertake some action in the future, to observe certain frameworks of behavior (letter of guarantee, contract, oath, promise, bet, etc.);
4) expressives intended for expression of mental attitude of the speaker to subjects and situations (gratitude, apology, congratulation, greeting, condolence etc.);
5) declaratives – speech acts, successful realization of which entails changes in the status or in position of that subject or subjects which are spoken about (for example: “I declare you the husband and the wife” or “I appoint you…”).

As we may see three illocutionary classes singled out by J.Searle repeal functions of a language sign in K.Buller’s model. Besides it is necessary to add, that the list of possible aims of speech act is not exhausted by classification of J.Searle. One of the developed concepts devoted to the pragmatic aspect of the utterance and in particular to types of speech acts, is presented in V.V.Bogdanov’s work. His scheme includes nine final classes, and each of these classes is illustrated by examples from different languages.