How to analyze a text on different levels?
Types of Sentences: Simple, compound (a sentence which consists of two or more clauses coordinated with each other) and complex (consists of a principal clause and one or more subordinate clause. Compound and complex sentences may be connected syndetically (by means of conjunctions) or asyndetically (without a conjunction). Sentences with homogeneous parts. Declarative sentences, interrogative sentences, exclamatory sentences.
Apposition – is a special kind of attribute which is expressed by a noun (with or without accompanying words) which characterizes or explains the word modified by giving the person or thing another name. Close apposition is not separated by commas and stands in close connection with the word modified (usually the name of the person + a title, rank, profession, relationship, geographical name + common noun, sometimes of + noun the city of London). Ex.: Aunt Ann, Professor Brown…A loose or detached apposition is not so closely connected with the noun. It is always separated by commas.(Dr. W., a predecessor, was….)
Detached parts of the sentence are those secondary parts, which assume a certain grammatical and semantic independence. This phenomenon is due to their loose connection with the words they modify. (He lit a pipe, carefully, because…)
Parenthesis is an independent element of the sentence. It shows the speaker’s attitude towards the thought expressed in the sentence or connects a given sentence with another one, or summarizes that which is said in the sentence. It is often detached from the rest of the sentence, separated from it by commas or dashes. P. can be expressed by: modal words: indeed, certainly, in fact, truly, actually, perhaps, evidently, obviously, maybe…; connectives: firstly, finally, thus, then, anyway, moreover, besides, nevertheless, therefore..; prepositional phrases: in a word, in truth, in my opinion, in short, on the one hand, at least..; infinitive and participial phrases: to be sure, to tell the truth, to begin with, generally speaking.
Inversion – violation of the traditional word order in the sentence.
Morphological and Lexical level
According to the nature and the number of morphemes constituting a word there are different structural types of words in English: simple, derived, compound, compound-derived. Simple words consist of one root morpheme and an inflexion (in many cases the inflexion is zero), e.g. «seldom», «chairs», «longer», «asked».
Derived words consist of one root morpheme, one or several affixes and an inlexion, e.g. «deristricted», «unemployed». Compound words consist of two or more root morphemes and an inflexion, e.g. «baby-moons», «wait-and-see (policy)». Compound-derived words consist of two or more root morphemes, one or more affixes and an inflexion, e.g. «middle-of-the-roaders», «job-hopper».
Abbreviations. Ex.: a) days of the week, e.g. Mon – Monday, Tue – Tuesday: b) names of months, e.g. Apr – April, Aug – August; c) names of counties in UK. e.g. Yorks – Yorkshire, Berks -Berkshire; d) names of states in USA, e.g. Ala -Alabama, Alas – Alaska; e) names of address, e.g. Mr., Mrs., Ms., Dr.; f) military ranks, e.g. capt. – captain, col. – colonel, sgt – sergeant; g) scientific degrees, e.g. B.A. – Bachelor of Arts, D.M. – Doctor of Medicine . ( Sometimes in scientific degrees we have abbreviations of Latin origin, e.g., M.B. – Medicinae Baccalaurus). h) units of time, length, weight, e.g. f. / ft -foot/feet, sec. – second, in. -inch, mg. – milligram etc. There are three types of initialisms in English: a) initialisms with alphabetical reading, such as UK, BUP, CND; b) initialisms which are read as if they are words, e.g. UNESCO, UNO, NATO; c) initialisms which coincide with English words in their sound form, such initialisms are called acronyms, e.g. CLASS (Computor-based Laboratory for Automated School System).
Phraseological units are word-groups that cannot be made in the process of speech, they exist in the language as ready-made units, they are stable, semantically inseparable. The same as words phraseological units express a single notion and are used in a sentence as one part of it. American and British lexicographers call such units «idioms».
Conversion – way of forming words when one part of speech is formed from another part of speech (e.g. to form the verb «to dial» from the noun «dial») Substantivization. Some scientists (Yespersen, Kruisinga ) refer substantivization of adjectives to conversion. But most scientists disagree with them because in cases of substantivization of adjectives we have quite different changes in the language. Substantivization is the result of ellipsis (syntactical shortening ) when a word combination with a semantically strong attribute loses its semantically weak noun (man, person etc), e.g. «a grown-up person» is shortened to «a grown-up». In cases of perfect substantivization the attribute takes the paradigm of a countable noun , e.g. a criminal, criminals, a criminal’s (mistake), criminals’ (mistakes). Such words are used in a sentence in the same function as nouns, e.g. I am fond of musicals, (musical comedies).
Borrowings (words from other languages). Barbarisms (words of foreign origin which have not been assimilated into English: chic, bon rnot(usually italicized)). Synonyms and Antonyms. Homonyms.
Grammar: Speech patterns. Use of articles. Infinitives. Gerunds. Participles. Active/passive voice. Subjunctive mood. Modals. Why does the author use these very grammatical constructions and what do they help to achieve?