Functional classification of texts by E.Grosse

Functional classification of texts by E.Grosse

Attempts to single out different classes of texts on the basis of text functions are rather numerous in linguistic literature E. Grosse allocates eight classes of written texts depending on the function, carried out by them:

1. Normative texts carry out the function of regulation, establishment of the norm in a certain sphere of life. Examples of such texts are: laws, charters, treaties, certificates (birth, marriage), etc.
2. The function of contact texts consists in establishment of contact between people. Here belong: salutatory cards, thank-you letters, expressions of sympathy, concern etc.
3. Group texts are intended for identification of certain groups of people. Here belong songs;, which characterize people as belonging to a certain political party, for example “Marseleza”.
4. The function оf poetic texts, consists in the reflection of the artistic position of the author. The basic content of such texts is embodied in different literary works (verse, novel, comedy etc.).
5. Texts with a dominant feature of self-expression serve as a means of a profound author’s analysis of personal life experience, facts of biography. The desire to express oneself is traced in personal diaries, curriculum vitas, autobiographies etc.
6. Texts with a. dominant feature of urge, (inducement, motive, stimulus) have an obvious function of prompting. Such orientation is palpable in advertising texts, program documents of different parties, newspaper commentaries etc.
7. A special, transitive class is made up by the texts, in which two functions dominate simultaneously. Such texts carry out both the function of prompting and transfer of information (for example, informational advertisements).
8. Texts with a dominant feature of special information serve, as a means of information exchange between people. Such function is carried out, for example, by the scientific texts, news in the means of mass communication, weather forecasts etc.

The above-described approach is hardly something new and unique. Functional approach underlies, for example, the scheme of description of text types offered by Ulrih Engel. Among “the global purposes”, serving as a basis for texts differentiation he names: informing, urging, persuasion, edification, establishment of contact, and emphasis.