Experimental study of the communicative division of the text
The latest investigations encourage further contemplations about the communicative nature of the text. To verify the ideas suggested by F. Danes experimentally the scholars of St Petersburg”‘State University studied the semantic structure of the texts, built on the basis of two typical structures – chain and bush-like ones.
In the text of a chain-like structure the thought develops successively (consecutively) from one utterance to another. This type corresponds to F. Danes’s simple linear progression: the rheme of the first utterance is themalized and serve as a theme of the second utterance, etc. In other words, it is a text with consecutively changing subjects.
In the text of athe theme of the first utterance is connected by distant relations with all other utterances that characterize it in detail. This type corresponds to F. Danes’s progression with a thorough theme. A text of a is the text with the only subject. The elements of the semantic structure of the first utterance are connected by associative ties with the elements of other utterances that reveal the qualities of the initial object.
In one experiment, two texts different in structure (chain and bush-like), but similar lexically were compared.
The results of the experiment were the following: the perception of words in the text of acame to 81%, while in the text of a chain structure it totalled 52%.
In another experiment which dealt withof chain and bush-like structure the results were as follows: perception of sentences in the text of a bush-like structure came to 56%, while in the text of a chain structure – 36%. As we may see, the role of the context appeared to be different: a bush-like structure made perception better while a chain structure made perception worse. Thus, a bush-like structure is not only better for text perception, but it also creates ‘positive context’, contributing to adequate apprehension.
So, F. Danes’s abstract ideas proved to be effective under experimental conditions as well. This fact makes further study of the communicative structure of a text a quite urgent and topical task.